260 Bibliography

BBC News,. ‘Do You Want To Live In A Smart City?’. N.p., 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.

BBC,. ‘The Importance Of Coal In The Industrial Revolution, Why The Industrial Revolution Happened Here – Learning Zone – BBC Two’. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.

Britishmuseum.org,. ‘British Museum – The Industrial Revolution And The Changing Face Of Britain’. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Britishmuseum.org,. ‘British Museum – The Industrial Revolution And The Changing Face Of Britain’. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

euronews,. ‘Belgian Taxi Drivers Strike Against Uber’. N.p., 2015. Web. 25 Feb. 2015.

Galleryhip.com,. ‘Second Industrial Revolution Factories – Viewing Gallery’. N.p., 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2015.

Industrialrevolutionresearch.com,. ‘Industrial Revolution – Research Including Banks, Textile Industry, Steam Engine, People, Trade Union, And Eli Whitney’. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Feb. 2015.

Inventors.about.com,. ‘Spinning Frame – Richard Arkwright And Samuel Slater’. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.

Love, Benjamin. Manchester As It Is, Or, Notices Of The Institutions, Manufactures, Commerce, Railways, Etc. Of The Metropolis Of Manufactures. Manchester [England]: Love and Barton, 1839. Print.

Meltzer, Tom. ‘Robot Doctors, Online Lawyers And Automated Architects: The Future Of The Professions?’. the Guardian. N.p., 2014. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Oxforddictionaries.com,. ‘Capitalism – Definition Of Capitalism In English From The Oxford Dictionary’. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Padlet.com,. ‘Dbreadmore/City’. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Feb. 2015.

Peter Says Stuff,. ‘Attempting The Impossible – Calculating Capitalism’s Death Toll’. N.p., 2014. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Revolution, Industrial. ‘Industrial Revolution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.Com’. HISTORY.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Revolution, Industrial. ‘Industrial Revolution – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.Com’. HISTORY.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Revolution, Industrial. ‘Industrial Revolution Video – Industrial Revolution – HISTORY.Com’. HISTORY.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.

Stoneman, Paul. Soft Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

The London Eye,. ‘History Of Coca-Cola London Eye’. N.p., 2015. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Visitbritainshop.com,. ’10 Unusual Facts About The London Eye | Visitbritain Shop’. N.p., 2015. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

Wood, Ellen Meiksins. The Origin Of Capitalism. London: Verso, 2002. Print.


260 – Playable City

In one lecture we had two guys from the company Ludicrooms come in to talk about ‘the playable city’.

The playable city is all about making something simple into something interactive. In a big capitalistic city where everyone is going to work it makes someone stop and interact with it.

The ludicrooms company says “We make playful experiences and try to uncover the little moments of joy that hide somewhere between digital things and the real world. We like to collaborate with people and make things together.”


Some examples of playable city things are A’Dam. This is a tower block interactive hub that contains advertisements that talk to you in first person. This makes them more personal and interactive.

There is also an interactive feature that films you for a small amount of time and allows you to make a flipbook out of it. You have to buy the flipbook at the end.

Another example is talking bins in London. This interactive feature in the city gives litter bins personalities and talk to you when used. This encourages people to use them more and therefore saves more money and time from people having go around picking up after people that litter.


Although making a city playable gives a small personal experience of fun, there are still reasons behind it. Most reasons being that they save money or bring in money by selling the experience.



260 – The London Eye

For our interactive documentary we wanted to talk about how London attractions made money. One attraction we talk about is the London eye. The research behind the London eye will be used for a voiceover to tell viewers about what it is and how much money it makes.


“The London Eye is essentially a Ferris wheel in the Centre of London, offering views up to forty kilometres in all directions. It opened in March 2000. British Airways was the main sponsor of the London Eye until February 2008 and up until November 2005 were joint shareholders with Marks Barfield Architects and the Tussauds Group. The London Eye is the United Kingdom’s most popular paid-for visitor attraction, visited by over 3.5 million people every year.”

Just this small extract from Paul Stoneman gives us a huge insight on the business behind the London Eye. Just one tourist attraction puts a massive amount of money into the economy.  The London Eye offers many different experience tickets for a variety of prices. One package can include champagne. The attraction is also used to hold many business meetings.

Here are some facts i found on http://www.visitbritainshop.com/world/articles-and-features/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-the-london-eye.html about the London eye.

  • The London Eye is not a Ferris wheel. It’s the world’s tallest cantilevered observation wheel. secondly, On average the London Eye receives more visitors per year than the Taj Mahal and the Great Pyramids of Giza.
  • In December 2005 the London Eye was lit pink in celebration of the first Civil Partnership performed on the wheel, just another thing for them to do in order to gain more tourist attraction.
  •  The London Eye can carry 800 people each rotation, which is comparable to 11 London red double decker buses.

Before this research I didn’t realise just how vast and successful this attraction was. Britain is so known for its history and royal family I did not think this fairly modern build would make this much money. 800 people in each rotation all buying one ticket and a photo at the end puts a massive amount of money into the economy.

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260 – Smart City

What is a smart city?

A smart city is a city that is connected to the internet. Just like a smart phone or a smart television. A smart city supplies to peoples needs and makes their life easier with things such as smart bus stops that show when the next bus is coming and the London Underground getting wifi for people to connect while underground.

In the future everything in a city, from the electricity grid, to the sewer pipes to roads, buildings and cars will be connected to the network. Buildings will turn off the lights for you, self-driving cars will find you that sought-after parking space, even the rubbish bins will be smart.


A new app has been developed that can be used around the world called Uber. This app allows you to book a taxi using your smart phone allowing you to pay online. You can order a taxi with the click of a button and track where it is too. Many other competing taxi companies are complaining about Uber for taking business away from them due to its ease. There has even been strikes from other taxi companies in Belgium.




I found an interesting video of Hugh Green at TEDxEmory Talks that talks all  about building and designing for the city to fit peoples needs and to help world issues such as Global warming. He talks about some that already exist and some that have plans. He talks about the population of cities getting larger so the city has to adapt to this.

A big question that comes to mind when it comes to smart cities is how it affects or would peoples’ jobs. If many jobs are now being replaced by machines and robots how will they be affected. A guardian report shows that in the future we pay be operated on by robot doctors and online lawyers, jobs that have always seemed the more secure.

“Knowledge-based jobs were supposed to be safe career choices, the years of study it takes to become a lawyer, say, or an architect or accountant, in theory guaranteeing a lifetime of lucrative employment. That is no longer the case. Now even doctors face the looming threat of possible obsolescence. Expert radiologists are routinely outperformed by pattern-recognition software, diagnosticians by simple computer questionnaires. In 2012, Silicon Valley investor Vinod Khosla predicted that algorithms and machines would replace 80% of doctors within a generation.”



It could be argued that this constantly changing technology could be a new generation of the Industrial revolution.

In our documentary we cover the subject of jobs being took over and interviewed a person on their opinion of it being put in place in London. For more effect we used ‘text to speech’ as the voiceover for this part.

260 – The Industrial Revolution

Where it all started; the industrial revolution –

Capitalism all started when the Industrial Revolution evolved. Britain experienced change in the late 18th century due to the start of the industrial revolution. Advances in technology allowed people to start using machines rather than hand labour allowing larger production at a cheaper cost. This technology advanced in agricultural and industrial production. Rural areas dramatically changed with the growth of the industrial revolution with more factories being built resulting in the area becoming more urban. These areas that were being developed into factories created many jobs for communities and therefore more money going into the economy.

There were many machine inventions in the industrial revolution. One of these was the spinning machine by Sir Richard Arkwright. The spinning machine allowed large and fast production of spinning fine cloth and allowed it to be made in the UK rather than getting it imported from India. This invention was soon copied and developed and allowed others to be developed.




A lot of machinery in the 18th century was powered by steam but the discovery of coal allowed for factories to produce more at a cheaper cost. This tradition of large profit at a smaller cost still runs today.


This initial model of private companies all making profit still runs and is the system that the UK and many other countries follow.



I can see a lot of ideas from the industrial revolution in the 18th century still run through to today, in which machines allow for more profit with less of the cost to run. Examples such as ticket machines and mobile apps are more convenient and cheaper to run but still allow making money from it. The only concern of this would be the loss of jobs due to machines because compared to the 18th century when these mass machines still needed to be run by people.

260 – Capitalism

For our research presentation we were given the subject of capitalism in the city and how this affects media. I had a basic idea of what capitalism is but more depth behind this will allow me to apply it more to a city and see the affect it has.

What is capitalism? 

Capitalism is an economic system, which revolves around the country’s trade. All of the country’s trade is owned by private owners that earn profit rather than the state.

“Capitalism is a system in which goods and service, down to the most basic necessities of life, are produced for profitable exchange, where even human labour-power is a commodity for sale in the market, and where all economic actors are dependent on the market.” (E.M. Wood: 2002 P2)

Initially I found it hard to grasp the concept of capitalism, but reading ‘The Origin of Capitalism’ made it much easier to understand. Looking at capitalism I could now research into other factors taking this into consideration and knowing everything is about money and profit.

The things we wanted to focus this around were – Capitalism and how it started, Jobs in the city and Smart and Playable cities. The result of all of our research came to everything costing money and being commodified.

260 – What makes a city?

A ‘city’ and what makes up a city can mean various things to many different people. For me, a city is always alive and there is always something happening. For me, a city is filled with all different races, religions and social class but for someone else this could mean a totally different thing. I come from a small town in the North East of England so I feel I notice many differences between that and a big city. The whole class added to a page to define what a city was.


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Things added to the page consisted of

  • Transport
  • Various Buildings
  • People
  • Art
  • Internet
  • Music
  • Jobs

All of these factors are what have been brought to the city by people. Because a city has such a variety of people we see this through what is in the city by what has been built. Now knowing what factors people consider in a city I can use this and adapt it to how capitalism has affected them.